University of California Berkeley’s Health Research for Action is calling on OSHA to revise its occupational health standard on lead, which is now 30 years old.Â In a report entitled “Indecent Exposure: Lead Puts Workers and Families at Risk,” the authors describeÂ the adverse health effects of lead in workers withÂ blood-lead levelsÂ of 5-10 ug/dL—a fraction of OSHA’s medical removal trigger of 60 ug/dL.Â They note:
“…extensive research has shown that lead causes significant health problems in adults at much lower levels.Â Cumulative exposure to low to moderate levels of lead has been associated with an increased risk of hypertension and reduced cognitive and kidney function.Â …[and] exposure during pregnancy has beenÂ associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and impaired fetal growth…”
The Health Research for Action’s authors draw on work published over the last decade, in particular, articles published in NIEHS’s journal Environmental Health Perspectives, including:
- Navas-Acien, et al.’s Lead exposure and cardiovascular disease (2007) in which the authors concluded: “current occupational safety standards for blood lead must be lowered.”
- Kosnett, et al.’s Recommendations for medical management of adult lead exposure (2007) in which the authors suggest more intensive and frequent medical monitoring of lead-exposed workers.
- Schwartz and Hu’s Adult lead exposure: time for change (2007) who suggest that “lead poisoning must be thought about as a chronic disease.Â Once a significant lead body burden has accumulated, the health effects are likely to be progressive and, to a large degree, irreversible.”
- Spivey’s article Weight of lead: effects add up in adults (2007)
- Â Schober, et al’s Blood-lead levels & deaths for all causes: Results from NHANES IIIÂ (2006)
As well as the Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC)’s medical management guidelines for lead-exposed adults (revised April 2007).
Health Research for Action provides just a sample of the compelling evidence that workers’ health continues to be harmed by workplace exposure to lead.Â They note that among the 37 states with blood-lead reporting systems:
“1,649 adults in 2003 and 1,425 in 2004 had blood lead levels of 40 ug/dL or higher”
and in California alone,
“2,390 adults in 2004 had blood-lead levels between 10 to 39 ug/dL.”
Â As I noted last year in Lead-Poisoned Workers in Alaska: Miners Beware!, some of the lead poisoning cases can be linked to a particular workplace, but we don’t necessarily have adequate regulations toÂ PREVENT the exposure.Â Â (MSHA, for example, doesn’t have a standard to protect mine workers from lead poisoning.)Â When we see data showing thatÂ workers already are lead poisoned, this is the ultimateÂ sign of failure.Â OurÂ nation’s lead-poisoning prevention measures are inadequate.
Health Research for Action’s reportÂ “Indecent Exposure: Lead Puts Workers and Families at Risk,” offers the following “Prescription for Change”:
- Eliminate all unnecessary uses of lead
- Revise OSHA standards
- Reward compliance
- Expand employer education and consultation
- Expand worker education and outreach
- Set enforceable reporting standards for clinical laboratories that perform blood lead tests